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Behavioral Neuroscience - shakilayousefi.psychologist


shakilayousefi.psychologist
 
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نوشته شده در تاريخ شنبه ٢٧ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا
    1. Gamo, Nao J.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.
      Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a central feature of many psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Thus, understanding molecular influences on PFC function through basic research in animals is essential to rational drug development. In this review, we discuss the molecular signaling events initiated by norepinephrine and dopamine that strengthen working memory function mediated by the dorsolateral PFC under optimal conditions, and weaken working memory function during uncontrollable stress. We also discuss how these intracellular mechanisms can be compromised in psychiatric disorders, and how novel treatments based on these findings may restore a molecular environment conducive to PFC regulation of behavior, thought and emotion. Examples of successful translation from animals to humans include guanfacine for the treatment of ADHD and related PFC disorders, and prazosin for the treatment of PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
    2. Newman, Lori A.; McGaughy, Jill
      Morphological changes in the anterior cingulate cortex are found in subjects with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. These changes are hypothesized to underlie the impairments these individuals show on tasks that require cognitive control. The anterior cingulate cortex has previously been shown to be active in situations involving high conflict, presentation of salient, distracting stimuli, and error processing, that is, situations that occur when a shift in attention or responding is required. However, there is some uncertainty as to what specific role the anterior cingulate cortex plays in these situations. The current study used converging evidence from two behavioral paradigms to determine the effects of excitotoxic lesions in the anterior cingulate cortex on executive control. The first assay tests reversal learning, attentional set formation and shifting. The second assesses sustained attention with and without distractors. Animals with anterior cingulate cortex lesions were impaired during reinforcement reversals, discriminations that required subjects to disregard previously relevant stimulus attributes and showed a more rapid decline in attentional ability than Sham-Lesioned subjects when maintaining sustained attention for extended periods of time. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the anterior cingulate cortex is involved in attending to stimulus attributes that currently predict reinforcement in the presence of previously relevant, salient distractors and maintaining sustained attention over prolonged time on task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
    3. Nelson, Andrew J. D.; Cooper, Molly T.; Thur, Karen E.; Marsden, Charles A.; Cassaday, Helen J.
      There is good evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in different aspects of recognition memory. However, the mPFC is a heterogeneous structure, and the contribution of the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices to recognition memory has not been investigated. Similarly, the role of different neuromodulators within the mPFC in these processes is poorly understood. To this end, we tested animals with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the PL and IL mPFC on three tests of object recognition memory that required judgments about recency, object location, and object identity. In the recency task, lesions to both PL and IL severely impaired animals' ability to differentiate between old (earlier presented) and recently presented familiar objects. Relative to sham and PL animals, the IL lesion also disrupted performance on the object location task. However, both lesions left novel object recognition intact. These data confirm previous reports that the mPFC is not required for discriminations based on the relative familiarity of individual objects. However, these results demonstrate that catecholamines within the PL cortex are crucial for relative recency judgments and suggest a possible role for neural processing within the IL in the integration of information about object location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
    4. Lelos, Mariah J.; Thomas, Rhian S.; Kidd, Emma J.; Good, Mark A.
      The onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is often accompanied by changes in emotion, motivation, and goal-directed behavior. The production of beta-amyloid is thought to be a major and early contributor to the pathogenesis of AD. The present study tested the hypothesis that amyloid pathology present in the amygdala, frontal cortex, and hippocampus of Tg2576 mice would disrupt the development of instrumental- and/or Pavlovian-outcome associations. The results showed that both instrumental- and Pavlovian-conditioned behaviors were sensitive to outcome devaluation (Experiments 1 & 2) and that Pavlovian cues influenced goal-directed actions associated with the same outcome (Experiment 2) in Tg2576 mice. In contrast, context mediated Pavlovian-conditioned behaviors in aged (Experiment 3a) but not young (Experiment 3b) Tg2576 mice were insensitive to outcome devaluation. Aged Tg2576, nevertheless, successfully acquired a simple context discrimination at the same rate as control mice. We conclude that amyloid pathology in aged Tg2576 mice may specifically disrupt context-outcome associations supported by the hippocampus and/or its interaction with the amygdala. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
    5. Scotti, Melissa-Ann L.; Lee, Grace; Gammie, Stephen C.
      Maternal defense (offspring protection) is a critical and highly conserved component of maternal care in mammalian systems that involves dramatic shifts in a female's behavioral response to social cues. Numerous changes occur in neuronal signaling and connectivity in the postpartum female, including decreases in norepinephrine (NE) signaling in subregions of the CNS. In this study using a strain of mice selected for maternal defense, we examined whether possible changes in NE signaling in the lateral septum (LS) could facilitate expression of maternal aggression. In separate studies that utilized a repeated measures design, mice were tested for maternal defense following intra-LS injections of either the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (10 μg or 30 μg) or vehicle (Experiment 1), the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (2 μg) or vehicle (Experiment 2), or the β1-receptor antagonist, atenolol (Experiment 3). Mice were also evaluated for light–dark performance and pup retrieval. Thirty micrograms of the agonist isoproterenol significantly decreased number of attacks and time aggressive relative to vehicle without affecting pup retrieval or light–dark box performance. In contrast, the antagonist propranolol significantly increased maternal aggression (lowered latency to attack and increased total attack time) without altering light–dark box test. The β1-specific antagonist, atenolol, significantly decreased latency to attack (1 μg vs. vehicle) without altering other measures. Although the findings were identified in a unique strain of mice, the results of these studies support the hypothesis that changes in NE signaling in LS during the postpartum period contribute to the expression of offspring protection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

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