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shakilayousefi.psychologist


shakilayousefi.psychologist
 
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محل درج آگهی و تبلیغات
 
نوشته شده در تاريخ چهارشنبه ۳۱ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا

The following articles have been published online this week before they appear in a final print and online issue of Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology:

Social problem solving and depressive symptoms over time: A randomized clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, brief supportive psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy.
Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.



Youth top problems: Using idiographic, consumer-guided assessment to identify treatment needs and to track change during psychotherapy.
Weisz, John R.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Frye, Alice; Ng, Mei Yi; Lau, Nancy; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Ugueto, Ana M.; Langer, David A.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.




نوشته شده در تاريخ چهارشنبه ۳۱ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا

The following articles have been published online this week before they appear in a final print and online issue of Neuropsychology:

Cardiorespiratory fitness, hippocampal volume, and frequency of forgetting in older adults.
Szabo, Amanda N.; McAuley, Edward; Erickson, Kirk I.; Voss, Michelle; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Mailey, Emily L.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; White, Siobhan M.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; Kramer, Arthur F.

Differential effects of prenatal testosterone on lateralization of handedness and language.
Lust, Jessica M.; Geuze, Reint H.; Van de Beek, Cornelieke; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Bouma, Anke; Groothuis, Ton G. G.


نوشته شده در تاريخ چهارشنبه ۳۱ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا

The following articles have been published online this week before they appear in a final print and online issue of Behavioral Neuroscience:


Set shifting in a rodent model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Chess, Amy C.; Raymond, Brittany E.; Gardner-Morse, Ira G.; Stefani, Mark R.; Green, John T.


Proinflammatory activity and the sensitization of depressive-like behavior during maternal separation.
Hennessy, Michael B.; Paik, Kristopher D.; Caraway, Jessica D.; Schiml, Patricia A.; Deak, Terrence


نوشته شده در تاريخ سه‌شنبه ۳٠ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا
نوشته شده در تاريخ دوشنبه ٢٩ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا

: PARENTING STRESS IN MOTHERS OF CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

 

                                                              YOUSEFI SH.,SOLTANIFAR ATEFEH,TEYMOURI SAEID

 

THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF FUNDAMENTALS OF MENTAL HEALTH SUMMER 2009; 11(2 (42)):115-122.

KeyWord: ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD), CHILDREN, NORMAL, PARENTING STRESS


نوشته شده در تاريخ دوشنبه ٢٩ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا

Mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) variation, oxytocin levels and maternal attachment in free-ranging rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta .

Page 131-136

Higham, James P.; Barr, Christina S.; Hoffman, Christy L.; Mandalaywala, Tara M.; Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario

 

Effects of selective neonatal hippocampal lesions on tests of object and spatial recognition memory in monkeys.

Page 137-149

Heuer, Eric; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

 

Early adversity and serotonin transporter genotype interact with hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression, corticosterone, and behavior in adult male rats.

Page 150-160

Belay, Hiwote; Burton, Christie L.; Lovic, Vedran; Meaney, Michael J.; Sokolowski, Marla; Fleming, Alison S.

 

Tactile stimulation during development attenuates amphetamine sensitization and structurally reorganizes prefrontal cortex and striatum in a sex-dependent manner.

Page 161-174

Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Pellis, Sergio M.; Kolb, Bryan

 

Pharmacobehavioural evidence for nitric oxide and noradrenaline interactions with ryanodine receptors during memory formation in the young chick.

Page 175-183

Baker, Kathryn D.; Edwards, Thomas M.; Rickard, Nikki S.

 

Differential rearing conditions and alcohol-preferring rats: Consumption of and operant responding for ethanol.

Page 184-193

Deehan, Gerald A., Jr.; Palmatier, Matthew I.; Cain, Mary E.; Kiefer, Stephen W.

 

Delay discounting in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice: Adolescent-limited and life-persistent patterns of impulsivity.

Page 194-201

Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Lamb, R. J.

 

Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens following exposure to retrospective timing tasks.

Page 202-214

Valencia Torres, L.; Olarte Sánchez, C. M.; Body, S.; Fone, K. C. F.; Bradshaw, C. M.; Szabadi, E.

 

Nucleus accumbens dopamine modulates response rate but not response timing in an interval timing task.

Page 215-225

Kurti, Allison N.; Matell, Matthew S.

 

Motor preparation and the effects of practice: Evidence from startle.

Page 226-240

Maslovat, Dana; Hodges, Nicola J.; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian M.

 

Processing of expected and unexpected monetary performance outcomes in healthy older subjects.

Page 241-251

Bellebaum, Christian; Kobza, Stefan; Thiele, Stefan; Daum, Irene

 

Effects of sleep inertia after daytime naps vary with executive load and time of day.

Page 252-260

Groeger, John A.; Lo, June C. Y.; Burns, Christopher G.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

 

Baclofen facilitates the extinction of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

Page 261-267

Voigt, Robin M.; Herrold, Amy A.; Napier, T. Celeste

 

Clozapine and PD149163 elevate prepulse inhibition in Brown Norway rats.

Page 268-272

Feifel, David; Shilling, Paul D.; Melendez, Gilia

 

The mu-opioid receptor and the evolution of mother-infant attachment: Theoretical comment on Higham et al. (2011).

Page 273-278

Curley, James P.

 


نوشته شده در تاريخ یکشنبه ٢۸ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا

Route Learning Performance: Is it a Hippocampus Function?

Adriana Gutterres; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; da Costa, Danielle Irigoyen; Azambuja, Luciana Schermann; Marroni, Sabine Possa; da Costa, Jaderson Costa; Pereira-Filho, Arthur Azambuja

                                                    

                                                     Effect of Propranolol on Word Fluency in Autism

Beversdorf, David Q.; Saklayen, Sanjida; Higgins, Katherine F.; Bodner, Kimberly E.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Christ, Shawn E.

Personality Characteristics and Motor Skills Attributed to Occupations in Parkinson Disease

Gatto, Nicole M.; Bordelon, Yvette; Gatz, Margaret; Ritz, Beate

Declines in Problem Solving and Anosognosia in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Application of Guilford's Structure of Intellect Theory

Flaherty-Craig, Claire V.; Brothers, Allyson; Yang, Chengwu; Svoboda, Ryan; Simmons, Zachary

 

 


نوشته شده در تاريخ یکشنبه ٢۸ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا
نوشته شده در تاريخ یکشنبه ٢۸ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا
  1. You have free access to this content
    Identification and genetic determination of an early life risk disposition for depressive disorder: Atypical stress-related behaviour in early childhood (pages 6–17)

    J. Anke M. van Eekelen, Craig A. Olsson, Justine A. Ellis, Wei Ang, Delyse Hutchinson, Stephen R. Zubrick and Craig E. Pennell

    Article first published online: 8 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9536.2011.00002.x

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    Modeling gene-environment interaction in longitudinal data: Risk for neuroticism due to interaction between maternal care and the Dopamine 4 Receptor gene (DRD4) (pages 18–25)

    Paul B. Badcock, Elya Moore, Elizabeth Williamson, Michael Berk, Lana J. Williams, Ottar Bjerkeset, Hans M. Nordahl, George C. Patton and Craig A. Olsson

    Article first published online: 8 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9536.2011.00003.x

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    The relationship between social capital and depression during the transition to adulthood (pages 26–35)

    Meredith O'Connor, Mary T. Hawkins, John W. Toumbourou, Ann Sanson, Primrose Letcher and Craig A. Olsson

    Article first published online: 8 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9536.2011.00004.x

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    A longitudinal study of the links between temperamental shyness, activity, and trajectories of internalising problems from infancy to middle childhood (pages 36–43)

    Evalill Karevold, Robert Coplan, Mike Stoolmiller and Kristin S. Mathiesen

    Article first published online: 8 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9536.2011.00005.x

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    Antisocial behaviour across the life course: An examination of the effects of early onset desistence and early onset persistent antisocial behaviour in adulthood (pages 44–55)

    Tara Renae McGee, Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh, William Bor, Michael Cerruto, Angela Dean, Rosa Alati, Ryan Mills, Gail M. Williams, Michael O'Callaghan and Jake M. Najman

    Article first published online: 8 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9536.2011.00006.x

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    Children's socio-emotional, physical, and cognitive outcomes: Do they share the same drivers? (pages 56–74)

    Ann Sanson, Diana Smart and Sebastian Misson

    Article first published online: 8 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9536.2011.00007.x


نوشته شده در تاريخ یکشنبه ٢۸ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا
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    Referrers' Perceived Utility and Outcomes of Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment in an Adolescent and Young Adult Public Mental Health Service (pages 15–24)

    Kelly Allott, Warrick Brewer, Patrick D McGorry and Tina-Marie Proffitt

    Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9544.2010.00002.x

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    Cross-Linguistic Differences in Digit Memory Span (pages 25–30)

    MeowLan E Chan and John M Elliott

    Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9544.2010.00007.x

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    Designated as Dangerous: Characteristics of Sex Offenders Subject to Post-Sentence Orders in Australia (pages 41–48)

    Dominic J Doyle, James Ogloff and Stuart Thomas

    Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9544.2010.00006.x

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    How to Cook Rice: A Review of Ingredients for Teaching anti-Prejudice (pages 55–63)

    Anne Pedersen, Iain Walker, Yin Paradies and Bernard Guerin

    Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9544.2010.00015.x


نوشته شده در تاريخ یکشنبه ٢۸ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا
  1. You have free access to this content
    The relationship between body dysmorphic disorder symptoms and self-construals (pages 10–16)

    Bianca PHILLIPS, Richard MOULDING, Michael KYRIOS, Maja NEDELJKOVIC and Serafino MANCUSO

    Article first published online: 9 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9552.2011.00004.x

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    Is exposure and response prevention treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder as aversive as we think? (pages 17–21)

    Yong Heng LEE and Clare S. REES

    Article first published online: 9 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9552.2011.00001.x

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    12-month follow-up of first-episode psychosis in Finland and Spain—differential significance of social adjustment-related variables (pages 22–32)

    Outi KALLA, Jarl WAHLSTRÖM, Jukka AALTONEN, Ville LEHTINEN and Manuel GONZÁLEZ DE CHÁVEZ

    Article first published online: 9 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-9552.2011.00002.x

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نوشته شده در تاريخ شنبه ٢٧ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا
نوشته شده در تاريخ شنبه ٢٧ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا
  1. Rholes, W. Steven; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Kohn, Jamie L.; Wilson, Carol L.; Martin, A. McLeish, III; Tran, SiSi; Kashy, Deborah A.
    In this longitudinal study, we followed a large sample of first-time parents (both partners) across the first 2 years of the transition to parenthood. Guided by attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969), we tested several predictions about how attachment anxiety and avoidance are related to the incidence, maintenance, increase, and decline of depressive symptoms in both sexes across the first 2 years of the transition. We found that (a) the association between attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to the marital and/or romantic relationship; (b) the association between avoidance and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to family responsibilities; (c) styles of caregiving provided by romantic partners affected depressive symptoms differently among anxious and avoidant persons; and (d) in certain predictable situations, depressive symptoms persisted at higher levels or increased to higher levels in anxious or avoidant persons across the 2-year transition period. Important implications of these results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  2. )
  3. Rydell, Robert J.; Rydell, Michael T.; Boucher, Kathryn L.
    Reports an error in "The effect of negative performance stereotypes on learning" by Robert J. Rydell, Michael T. Rydell and Kathryn L. Boucher (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2010[Dec], Vol 99[6], 883-896). There is an error in the first paragraph of the Results section on page 886. The third sentence in this paragraph reads “As predicted, the stereotype threat manipulation did not affect women's learning of mathematical rules presented before the instructions, F (1, 57) = 0.68, p = .41, ηp² = .01; however, women in the stereotype threat condition learned fewer mathematical rules presented after the instructions than did women in the control condition, F (1, 57) = 3.96, p = .05, ηp² = .07.” Given the data, the second part of the sentence should have read “however, women in the stereotype threat condition showed a non-significant trend towards learning fewer mathematical rules presented after the instructions than did women in the control condition, F (1, 57) = 3.56, p = .064, ηp² = .06.” (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-20715-001.) Stereotype threat (ST) research has focused exclusively on how negative group stereotypes reduce performance. The present work examines if pejorative stereotypes about women in math inhibit their ability to learn the mathematical rules and operations necessary to solve math problems. In Experiment 1, women experiencing ST had difficulty encoding math-related information into memory and, therefore, learned fewer mathematical rules and showed poorer math performance than did controls. In Experiment 2, women experiencing ST while learning modular arithmetic (MA) performed more poorly than did controls on easy MA problems; this effect was due to reduced learning of the mathematical operations underlying MA. In Experiment 3, ST reduced women's, but not men's, ability to learn abstract mathematical rules and to transfer these rules to a second, isomorphic task. This work provides the first evidence that negative stereotypes about women in math reduce their level of mathematical learning and demonstrates that reduced learning due to stereotype threat can lead to poorer performance in negatively stereotyped domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
  4. Chatard, Armand; Selimbegović, Leila
    When individuals realize that they fail to attain important standards or expectations, they may be motivated to escape the self, which could lead thoughts of suicide to become more accessible. Six studies examined this hypothesis, mainly derived from escape theory (Baumeister, 1990). The results indicated that whenever individuals realize that they fail to attain an important standard, they experience increased accessibility of suicide-related thoughts (Studies 1–6). In line with the idea that such effects reflect motivations to escape from negative self-awareness, they were especially pronounced when associated with high levels of self-consciousness and escapist motivations (Study 1) and with a large discrepancy between self and standards (Studies 2–4). Moreover, failure to attain standards increased suicide-thought accessibility along with the desire for an altered state of consciousness (Study 5). Finally, increases in suicide-thought accessibility after failure were associated with simultaneous increases in accessibility of general concepts related to escape (Study 6). Implications of these findings for escape and terror management theories are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  5. O'Brien, Daniel Tumminelli; Wilson, David Sloan
    When entering an unfamiliar neighborhood, adaptive social decisions are dependent on an accurate assessment of the local safety. Studies of cities have shown that the maintenance of physical structures is correlated with the strength of ties between neighbors, which in turn is responsible for the crime level. Thus it should be theoretically possible to intuit neighborhood safety through the physical structures alone. Here we test whether people have this capacity for judging urban neighborhoods with 3 studies in which individuals observed photographs of unfamiliar neighborhoods in Binghamton, New York. Each study was facilitated by data collected during previous studies performed by the Binghamton Neighborhood Project studies. In the 1st study, observer ratings on neighborhood social quality agreed highly with reports by those living there. In the 2nd, a separate sample of participants played an economic game with adolescent residents from pictured neighborhoods. Players exhibited a lower level of trust toward adolescents from neighborhoods whose residents report lesser social quality. In the 3rd study, the maintenance of physical structures and the presence of businesses explained nearly all variation between neighborhoods in observer ratings (89%), whereas the specific features influencing play in Study 2 remained inconclusive. These and other results suggest that people use the general upkeep of physical structures when making wholesale judgments of neighborhoods, reflecting a adaptation for group living that has strong implications for the role of upkeep in urban environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  6. DeWall, C. Nathan; Maner, Jon K.; Deckman, Timothy; Rouby, D. Aaron
    Being inattentive to attractive relationship alternatives can enhance relationship well-being. The current investigation, however, demonstrates that implicitly preventing people from attending to desirable relationship alternatives may undermine, rather than bolster, the strength of that person's romantic relationship. Consistent with the notion of “forbidden fruit,” we found that subtly limiting people's attention to attractive alternatives reduced relationship satisfaction and commitment and increased positive attitudes toward infidelity (Experiment 1), increased memory for attractive relationship alternatives (Experiment 2), and increased attention to attractive alternatives (Experiment 3). Findings suggest that although attention to attractive alternatives can harm one's relationship, situations that implicitly limit one's attention to alternatives can, rather ironically, increase the temptation of alternatives and undermine relationship well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  7. Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja
    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  8. Zhang, Shu; Higgins, E. Tory; Chen, Guoquan
    In 5 studies, we investigated the relation between regulatory focus and the tendency to copy a role model's managing behavior after one experiences this behavior as its recipient and later takes on the same managing role. Because enacting role-related behaviors fulfills interpersonal norms that fit prevention concerns, we predicted a stronger tendency to copy among individuals with a stronger prevention focus on duties and obligations (“oughts”) but not among those with a stronger promotion focus on aspirations and advancements (ideals). We also predicted that individuals with a stronger prevention focus would tend to copy a managing behavior regardless of their earlier hedonic experience with this behavior as its recipient. These predictions were first supported in 2 experimental studies, where a stronger prevention focus was measured as a chronic disposition (Study 1) and experimentally induced as a temporary state (Study 2). Further, we tested the mechanism underlying the relation between stronger prevention and stronger copying and found that concerns about the normativeness, but not the effectiveness, of a managing behavior motivated copying for individuals with a strong prevention focus (Studies 3 and 4). We generalized these experimental results to the field by surveying a sample of superior-subordinate dyads in real world organizations (Study 5). Across all studies, we found that individuals with a stronger prevention focus tend to copy more a role model's managing behavior—independent of their hedonic satisfaction with the behavior as its recipient and their perception of its effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  9. Sundie, Jill M.; Kenrick, Douglas T.; Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Beal, Daniel J.
    Conspicuous consumption is a form of economic behavior in which self-presentational concerns override desires to obtain goods at bargain prices. Showy spending may be a social signal directed at potential mates. We investigated such signals by examining (a) which individuals send them, (b) which contexts trigger them, and (c) how observers interpret them. Three experiments demonstrated that conspicuous consumption is driven by men who are following a lower investment (vs. higher investment) mating strategy and is triggered specifically by short-term (vs. long-term) mating motives. A fourth experiment showed that observers interpret such signals accurately, with women perceiving men who conspicuously consume as being interested in short-term mating. Furthermore, conspicuous purchasing enhanced men's desirability as a short-term (but not as a long-term) mate. Overall, these findings suggest that flaunting status-linked goods to potential mates is not simply about displaying economic resources. Instead, conspicuous consumption appears to be part of a more precise signaling system focused on short-term mating. These findings contribute to an emerging literature on human life-history strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  10. Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Dudley, Kari L.
    The authors present and test a model of interpersonal insecurity compensation. According to this model, perceivers detect targets' chronic insecurities about interpersonal acceptance, become vigilant about upsetting targets, and respond with affective exaggeration, which involves cautiously inflating positive thoughts and feelings about targets and concealing negative sentiments. Results of 3 studies support this model across a variety of relationship types. Perceivers who detected targets' chronic insecurities concealed negative sentiments when they believed their sentiments would be observed by targets (Study 1), converged with other perceivers in their self-reported affective exaggeration to insecure targets (Study 2), and reported vigilance about upsetting targets, which predicted perceivers' enhanced cognitive processing of targets' daily insecurity and intensified their tendencies to exaggerate affections in response to that insecurity (Study 3). Perceivers' affective exaggeration appeared to enhance chronically insecure targets' perceptions of being valued by perceivers, but it also predicted perceivers' reduced relationship satisfaction (Studies 2 and 3). Results underscore the active, but perhaps dissatisfying, regulation of relationships with chronically insecure relationship partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  11. Aquino, Karl; McFerran, Brent; Laven, Marjorie
    Four studies using survey and experimental designs examined whether people whose moral identity is highly self-defining are more susceptible to experiencing a state of moral elevation after being exposed to acts of uncommon moral goodness. Moral elevation consists of a suite of responses that motivate prosocial action tendencies. Study 1 showed that people higher (vs. lower) in moral identity centrality reported experiencing more intense elevating emotions, had more positive views of humanity, and were more desirous of becoming a better person after reading about an act of uncommon goodness than about a merely positive situation or an act of common benevolence. Study 2 showed that those high in moral identity centrality were more likely to recall acts of moral goodness and experience moral elevation in response to such events more strongly. These experiences were positively related to self-reported prosocial behavior. Study 3 showed a direct effect on behavior using manipulated, rather than measured, moral identity centrality. Study 4 replicated the effect of moral identity on the states of elevation as well as on self-reported physical sensations and showed that the elevation mediates the relationship between moral identity, witnessing uncommon goodness, and prosocial behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  12. Frazier, Patricia; Keenan, Nora; Anders, Samantha; Perera, Sulani; Shallcross, Sandra; Hintz, Samuel
    Reports an error in "Perceived past, present, and future control and adjustment to stressful life events" by Patricia Frazier, Nora Keenan, Samantha Anders, Sulani Perera, Sandra Shallcross and Samuel Hintz (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 100[4], 749-765). There is an error on page 758. In the sentence “Present control predicted later event-specific distress in Sample 1(β = .17, p < .01) but did not predict later general distress (β = .00) in Sample 2, controlling for earlier distress” the value .17 should have been -.17. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2011-02001-001.) Perceived control is a central construct in psychology and is key to understanding individual differences in poststress outcomes (Frazier, Berman, & Steward, 2001). The goals of the current studies (using 4 samples of undergraduate students, total N = 1,421) were to examine the relations between different aspects of perceived control and poststress outcomes and to differentiate perceived control over specific events from related constructs (i.e., general control beliefs, coping strategies). To accomplish these goals, we first developed a new measure of perceived past, present, and future control over stressful life events. The data supported the content validity, factor structure, internal consistency and test–retest reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity of the new measure. Consistent with the temporal model of control (Frazier et al., 2001), these 3 forms of control had very different relations with adjustment. Present control was consistently related to lower distress levels in cross-sectional, longitudinal, and prospective analyses. Present control also predicted outcomes beyond the effects of general control beliefs and coping strategies. Past and future control had nonsignificant or positive relations with distress, although future control was associated with better outcomes (i.e., course grades) when the stressor was controllable. Thus, our measure can be used to assess the relations between perceived past, present, and future control and outcomes across a range of stressors. Because the relations between these 3 forms of control and outcomes differ markedly, measures that combine these aspects of control hinder the understanding of the important role of perceived control in adjustment to stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  13. Hutcherson, Cendri A.; Gross, James J.
    Recent research has highlighted the important role of emotion in moral judgment and decision making (Greene, Sommerville, Nystrom, Darley, & Cohen, 2001; Haidt, 2001). What is less clear is whether distinctions should be drawn among specific moral emotions. Although some have argued for differences among anger, disgust, and contempt (Rozin, Lowery, Imada, & Haidt, 1999), others have suggested that these terms may describe a single undifferentiated emotional response to morally offensive behavior (Nabi, 2002). In this article, we take a social–functionalist perspective, which makes the prediction that these emotions should be differentiable both in antecedent appraisals and in consequent actions and judgments. Studies 1–3 tested and found support for our predictions concerning distinctions among antecedent appraisals, including (a) a more general role for disgust than has been previously been described, (b) an effect of self-relevance on anger but not other emotions, and (c) a role for contempt in judging incompetent actions. Studies 4 and 5 tested and found support for our specific predictions concerning functional outcomes, providing evidence that these emotions are associated with different consequences. Taken together, these studies support a social–functionalist account of anger, disgust, and contempt and lay the foundation for future research on the negative interpersonal emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  14. Mauss, Iris B.; Shallcross, Amanda J.; Troy, Allison S.; John, Oliver P.; Ferrer, Emilio; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Gross, James J.
    It is now clear that positive emotion leads to enhanced psychological functioning. What is less clear, however, is just why this is so. Drawing on a social-functional perspective, we argue that positive emotional behavior that accurately signals to others the individual's internal state will enhance social connectedness. Positive emotional behavior that does not accurately signal a person's experience—such as a smile that is not felt—may impede social connectedness and, in turn, psychological functioning. This perspective suggests that (a) the degree to which experience and behavior are dissociated during positive emotional episodes, over and above level of positive behavior, should predict worse psychological functioning and (b) the effect of dissociation should be mediated by social connectedness. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a short-term prospective longitudinal study, with a baseline assessment of depressive symptoms and well-being at Time 1. Six months later, at Time 2, we used a novel within-individual laboratory paradigm to measure the degree to which positive emotional behavior was dissociated from (vs. coherent with) a participant's positive emotional experience. We also assessed level of positive behavior and experience. Then, another 6 months later, we assessed social connectedness as a mediator and depressive symptoms and well-being as outcomes at Time 3. Even when controlling for baseline functioning and for level of positive emotion behavior and experience, we found that greater positive experience–behavior dissociation at Time 2 predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of well-being at Time 3. As predicted, these associations were mediated by social connectedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  15. Frazier, Patricia; Keenan, Nora; Anders, Samantha; Perera, Sulani; Shallcross, Sandra; Hintz, Samuel
    [Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(4) of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (see record 2011-05716-005). There is an error on page 758. In the sentence “Present control predicted later event-specific distress in Sample 1( β = .17, p < .01) but did not predict later general distress ( β = .00) in Sample 2, controlling for earlier distress” the value .17 should have been -.17.] Perceived control is a central construct in psychology and is key to understanding individual differences in poststress outcomes (Frazier, Berman, & Steward, 2001). The goals of the current studies (using 4 samples of undergraduate students, total N = 1,421) were to examine the relations between different aspects of perceived control and poststress outcomes and to differentiate perceived control over specific events from related constructs (i.e., general control beliefs, coping strategies). To accomplish these goals, we first developed a new measure of perceived past, present, and future control over stressful life events. The data supported the content validity, factor structure, internal consistency and test–retest reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity of the new measure. Consistent with the temporal model of control (Frazier et al., 2001), these 3 forms of control had very different relations with adjustment. Present control was consistently related to lower distress levels in cross-sectional, longitudinal, and prospective analyses. Present control also predicted outcomes beyond the effects of general control beliefs and coping strategies. Past and future control had nonsignificant or positive relations with distress, although future control was associated with better outcomes (i.e., course grades) when the stressor was controllable. Thus, our measure can be used to assess the relations between perceived past, present, and future control and outcomes across a range of stressors. Because the relations between these 3 forms of control and outcomes differ markedly, measures that combine these aspects of control hinder the understanding of the important role of perceived control in adjustment to stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
  16. Sheldon, Kennon M.; Abad, Neetu; Hinsch, Christian
    Does using Facebook help people to meet their relatedness needs? Study 1 shows that more frequent Facebook usage paradoxically correlates with more relatedness satisfaction (connection) and more relatedness dissatisfaction (disconnection). Study 2 supports a 2-process explanation of this finding, showing that disconnection motivates greater usage as a coping strategy, whereas connection results from greater usage. Study 3 examines the effects of depriving participants of Facebook use for 48 hr. Further supporting the 2-process view, connection decreased, but disconnection was unaffected during the deprivation period; however, those who became more disconnected during the deprivation period engaged in more Facebook use during a 2nd, unconstrained 48-hr period, whereas changes in connection did not predict later use. In Study 4, participants set a Facebook reduction goal; initial disconnection interfered with and predicted worse performance in this goal. Implications for theories of psychological needs, behavioral motives, and adaptive coping are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

نوشته شده در تاريخ شنبه ٢٧ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا
    1. Gamo, Nao J.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.
      Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a central feature of many psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Thus, understanding molecular influences on PFC function through basic research in animals is essential to rational drug development. In this review, we discuss the molecular signaling events initiated by norepinephrine and dopamine that strengthen working memory function mediated by the dorsolateral PFC under optimal conditions, and weaken working memory function during uncontrollable stress. We also discuss how these intracellular mechanisms can be compromised in psychiatric disorders, and how novel treatments based on these findings may restore a molecular environment conducive to PFC regulation of behavior, thought and emotion. Examples of successful translation from animals to humans include guanfacine for the treatment of ADHD and related PFC disorders, and prazosin for the treatment of PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
    2. Newman, Lori A.; McGaughy, Jill
      Morphological changes in the anterior cingulate cortex are found in subjects with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. These changes are hypothesized to underlie the impairments these individuals show on tasks that require cognitive control. The anterior cingulate cortex has previously been shown to be active in situations involving high conflict, presentation of salient, distracting stimuli, and error processing, that is, situations that occur when a shift in attention or responding is required. However, there is some uncertainty as to what specific role the anterior cingulate cortex plays in these situations. The current study used converging evidence from two behavioral paradigms to determine the effects of excitotoxic lesions in the anterior cingulate cortex on executive control. The first assay tests reversal learning, attentional set formation and shifting. The second assesses sustained attention with and without distractors. Animals with anterior cingulate cortex lesions were impaired during reinforcement reversals, discriminations that required subjects to disregard previously relevant stimulus attributes and showed a more rapid decline in attentional ability than Sham-Lesioned subjects when maintaining sustained attention for extended periods of time. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the anterior cingulate cortex is involved in attending to stimulus attributes that currently predict reinforcement in the presence of previously relevant, salient distractors and maintaining sustained attention over prolonged time on task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
    3. Nelson, Andrew J. D.; Cooper, Molly T.; Thur, Karen E.; Marsden, Charles A.; Cassaday, Helen J.
      There is good evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in different aspects of recognition memory. However, the mPFC is a heterogeneous structure, and the contribution of the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices to recognition memory has not been investigated. Similarly, the role of different neuromodulators within the mPFC in these processes is poorly understood. To this end, we tested animals with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the PL and IL mPFC on three tests of object recognition memory that required judgments about recency, object location, and object identity. In the recency task, lesions to both PL and IL severely impaired animals' ability to differentiate between old (earlier presented) and recently presented familiar objects. Relative to sham and PL animals, the IL lesion also disrupted performance on the object location task. However, both lesions left novel object recognition intact. These data confirm previous reports that the mPFC is not required for discriminations based on the relative familiarity of individual objects. However, these results demonstrate that catecholamines within the PL cortex are crucial for relative recency judgments and suggest a possible role for neural processing within the IL in the integration of information about object location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
    4. Lelos, Mariah J.; Thomas, Rhian S.; Kidd, Emma J.; Good, Mark A.
      The onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is often accompanied by changes in emotion, motivation, and goal-directed behavior. The production of beta-amyloid is thought to be a major and early contributor to the pathogenesis of AD. The present study tested the hypothesis that amyloid pathology present in the amygdala, frontal cortex, and hippocampus of Tg2576 mice would disrupt the development of instrumental- and/or Pavlovian-outcome associations. The results showed that both instrumental- and Pavlovian-conditioned behaviors were sensitive to outcome devaluation (Experiments 1 & 2) and that Pavlovian cues influenced goal-directed actions associated with the same outcome (Experiment 2) in Tg2576 mice. In contrast, context mediated Pavlovian-conditioned behaviors in aged (Experiment 3a) but not young (Experiment 3b) Tg2576 mice were insensitive to outcome devaluation. Aged Tg2576, nevertheless, successfully acquired a simple context discrimination at the same rate as control mice. We conclude that amyloid pathology in aged Tg2576 mice may specifically disrupt context-outcome associations supported by the hippocampus and/or its interaction with the amygdala. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
    5. Scotti, Melissa-Ann L.; Lee, Grace; Gammie, Stephen C.
      Maternal defense (offspring protection) is a critical and highly conserved component of maternal care in mammalian systems that involves dramatic shifts in a female's behavioral response to social cues. Numerous changes occur in neuronal signaling and connectivity in the postpartum female, including decreases in norepinephrine (NE) signaling in subregions of the CNS. In this study using a strain of mice selected for maternal defense, we examined whether possible changes in NE signaling in the lateral septum (LS) could facilitate expression of maternal aggression. In separate studies that utilized a repeated measures design, mice were tested for maternal defense following intra-LS injections of either the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (10 μg or 30 μg) or vehicle (Experiment 1), the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (2 μg) or vehicle (Experiment 2), or the β1-receptor antagonist, atenolol (Experiment 3). Mice were also evaluated for light–dark performance and pup retrieval. Thirty micrograms of the agonist isoproterenol significantly decreased number of attacks and time aggressive relative to vehicle without affecting pup retrieval or light–dark box performance. In contrast, the antagonist propranolol significantly increased maternal aggression (lowered latency to attack and increased total attack time) without altering light–dark box test. The β1-specific antagonist, atenolol, significantly decreased latency to attack (1 μg vs. vehicle) without altering other measures. Although the findings were identified in a unique strain of mice, the results of these studies support the hypothesis that changes in NE signaling in LS during the postpartum period contribute to the expression of offspring protection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

نوشته شده در تاريخ شنبه ٢٧ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا
نوشته شده در تاريخ شنبه ٢٧ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا

نوشته شده در تاريخ شنبه ٢٧ فروردین ،۱۳٩٠ توسط شکیلا

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